Due to the endogenous and exogenous factors, such as the development of science and technology, the advancement of industry and the intensification of US-China technology competition, national security, economy and technology are becoming more intricately intertwined. To respond to such paradigm shifts, the United States, China and the European Union are actively establishing national, economic and technology security strategy.
The United States is building security governance centered on the White House, proposing a bill to expand purchases of domestic products and expanding infrastructure investment for economic security, and launching the Indo-Pacific Economic Framework (IPEF). To secure technology security, in addition, the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives proposed the U.S. Innovation and Competition Act (USICA, 2021) and America COMPETES Act (ACA, 2022), respectively, which led to the enactment of CHIPS and Science Act in July 2022.
China has constructed security governance centered on the Council of State Security of the People’s Republic of China (中央国家安全委员会), and proposed the first concept of comprehensive national security in 2014. In 2021, China proposed a Dual Circulation Strategy centered on the domestic market to secure economic security, and laid the foundation for stable economic growth through Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP) and the Belt and Road Initiative (一带一路, BRI) for the expansion of external economic cooperation. China is intensively promoting key technology self-reliance and commercialization, talent development, and international cooperation to ensure its technology security.
The European Union is establishing its security strategy centered on NATO (Defense) and EEAS (Diplomacy), and has experienced a clear strategic alteration with Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. The EU is concurrently establishing a new industrial strategy and carrying out various economic cooperation with China and the United States for economic security. They are promoting Horizon Europe, a mega science project and strengthening export control and foreign direct investment regulations, but simultaneously pursuing technology security through the reinforcement of scientific cooperation between the Member states.
The policy recommendations extrapolated from present research are as follows:
Recommendation 1. Establishment of National, Economic, and Technology Security Concepts and Mid- to Long-term Strategies
Mission ①: Promotion of the Establishment of Korean National, Economic, and Technology Strategy Concepts, Goals, Strategies and Tasks.
Mission ②: Mandating an establishment of ‘science and technology innovation and economy report’ and ‘mid- to long-term national security strategy’ by the Presidential office.
Recommendation 2. Advancement of the Coordination and Response System for National, Economic and Technology Security Governance
Mission ①: Establishing a Tripartite Cooperation Governance of National, Economic and Technology Security
Mission ②: Establishment of National/Economic/Technology Security Early Warning System (EWS) and Quick Response System (QRS)
Recommendation 3. Enactment of K-Innovation Act for National Innovation
(Division A) Mission-Oriented Science Innovation Act
(Division B) Advanced Strategic Industry Competitiveness and Maintenance and Protection Act
(Division C) Internal and External Economic Environment Stabilization and Investment Promotion Act
(Division D) Strategic Economy, Science and Technology Diplomacy Promotion Act